固定金利と変動金利はどちらがいい?

固定金利と変動金利、どちらも「絶対」はありません。メリット・デメリットがあります。

お客様から、「固定と変動、どちらが絶対に安心?」と質問を受けることが頻繁にありますが、弊社では両方のメリット・デメリットを説明するようにしています。全ては千差万別、ケースバイケースなのです。

大手都市銀行の住宅ローン、最優遇金利を基に具体的に説明しましょう。

  • 3000万円、期間30年
  • 固定金利: 2.56%
  • 変動金利: 0.875%(当初)

変動金利の5年特約のワナ

住宅ローンは、金利だけを見れば変動金利が圧倒的に有利です。
例えば3000万円を期間30年、当初金利0・875%で借りた場合、月々の支払いと総返済額は以下の通りとなります。

変動金利の支払い

  • 月々の支払: 94,779円
  • 総返済額: 3412万442円

一方、固定金利にすると以下の通りとなります。

固定金利の支払い

  • 月々の支払い: 119,474円
  • 総返済額: 4301万514円

総支払額は、なんと889万以上もの大差になります。月々の支払いも2万円以上のアップ。
これだけ貯金するのは大変なことです。

ところが変動金利は、当初の金利がずっと約束されているわけではありません。

かといって毎月変動しているわけでもなく、支払い額が見直されるのは5年に1回。
金利の見直しは市場動向に合わせて年に2回行われています。

つまり、5年の間に金利が変動すると、支払額は変わらないものの、元金と利息の内訳が変動するわけです。
これが変動金利の「5年特約」が安心でないといわれる由縁です。

もし5年のうちに金利が上昇すれば、それだけ元金の支払いができていないことになるため、6年目以降の支払額がアップします。
このアップ率は1・25倍までと上限が決まっていますが、支払いが減免されるわけではありません。

30年がすぎた時点で利息の支払いが残っていれば「未収利息」として、一括返済をすることになっているのが一般的です。

元金の減りが遅い固定金利

そう考えると安定的な長期固定がいいかな、と思うのが通常の感覚でしょう。
しかし、固定金利にもデメリットはあります。

それは、「元金の減りが遅い」ということです。

先程のシミュレーションに戻ります。
今度は毎月支払いの元金と利息の内訳に注目してみましょう。

変動金利の支払い内訳

  • 月々の支払: 94,779円
  • 利息分: 21,895円
  • 元金分: 72,904円
  • 元金割合: 76.9%

固定金利は以下の通りとなります。

固定金利の支払い内訳

  • 月々の支払: 119,474円
  • 利息分: 64,000円
  • 元金分: 55,474円
  • 元金割合: 46.4%

このまま支払う場合の10年後、20年後の支払残高をみてみましょう。

10年後の支払残高

  • 変動金利: 2078万1273円
  • 固定金利: 2249万4077円
  • 差額: 171万2804円

20年後の支払残高

  • 変動金利: 1079万9456円
  • 固定金利: 1272万9431円
  • 差額: 192万9975円

差が広がっていくのがお分かりいただけると思います。

本当に高いのは家よりもローン

「では、とりあえず変動金利にしておいて、金利が上がったら固定に切り替えればよい?」

こう考える方もいらっしゃるでしょう。

しかし変動金利が上昇しているときは、必ず固定金利も上昇しています。
経済動向に詳しい方なら、チャレンジしてもいいかもしれませんが、安易な選択は禁物です。

建築業者や中古物件に関しては血眼になって徹夜してでも徹底的に比較検討しようとされる方が多いですが、住宅ローン選びについては驚くほど簡単に決めてしまいがちな方が非常に多いです。

「主役は家だから、、、」なんておっしゃらずに、
本当に高いのは「家」よりも「住宅ローン」ということを忘れずに後悔の無い選択を心がけましょう。

ご相談は無料です。

マンション、土地、一戸建の居住用不動産のほか、投資用不動産や、事業用不動産もお任せください。また、権利関係の難しい借地権や底地権などの不動産についてもお気軽にご相談ください。

33 件のコメント

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